## Sunday, 7 April 2013

### Notes for ALL & A recap

Thank you Dr Yeap Ban Har!
It has indeed been a fruitful and interesting journey on the concepts of Mathematics.
I have learn so much within the 6 days and I wished you were my Mathematics teacher because probably I would love and do better in Mathematics.
Nevertheless, I hope to be able to plan better Mathematics Lesson and help children in Mathematics.

When Planning a Lesson:
•  What do i want the children to learn? ( Learning goal)
•  How do I know? (Assessment)
•  What if they cant? ( Revisit the process, using concrete)
•  What if the already can? ( Enrichment)
4 Teaching Strategies
1. Modelling (Show)
2. Scaffolding (don't show) (get the child to do and as a Teacher, we will help the child)
3. Children do it themself
4. If children cannot, go back to scaffolding.
5 Big Ideas
1. Visualisation
2. Pattern
3. Number Sense (the human ability to make decision)
4. Communication
5. Metacognition

### Day 6 Algebra

Mathematics is not magic but rather there is a pattern to it and if we can see it, we would not find mathematics difficult.

Try this out.

Take 2 numbers and form the biggest number possible from the two digits and subtract the smallest number possible.
The Answer is (the two 2 digits of the asnwer equals to 9)

Before I reveal the number trick,

Here are a few examples....
Example 1
2 Numbers = 9 & 2
Biggest number possible - Smallest number possible
92               -                 29                       = 63 (6+3 = 9)

2 number = 9 & 2
9 - 2 = 7
The answer is a multiple of 9 and the answer is the difference between the 2 numbers choosen, multiply by 9.
Hence, 7 x 9 = 63.

Example 2
4 & 5
54 - 45 = 9

Example 3
1 & 5
21 - 15 = 36 (3+6 =9)

Amazing? Well, let's find out the Number Trick

Why is works?     x   y
10 x + y             10 y + x
(10 x + y)           (10 y + x)
9 x - 9 y
9 (x - y)

### Day 5 Perceptual Variability

Teachers use variables to teach children 'How many"

Hence,
- The choice of material is important
- The shape, the size, the colour matters

*Avoid giving different types of variables such as (long sticks & short sticks)
*Use different variable colours, because it is not the colour we intend to teach children.

Day 1     All identical colour
Day 2     Change colours
(The aim is to look at the numbers and not the variable)

Perceptual Variability

Comes in 10 Closest to reality, easiest to perceive ( natural)

Comes naturally as a bundles (not in 10)

Hard to perceive

As Teachers, it is important in knowing this spectrum.

### Day 4

Let's solve this together...

How many 3/8s are there in 1/2?

## Friday, 5 April 2013

### Day 3 Fractions

Fractions

Fraction must be equal.

As teachers we make the mistake of teaching children the concept of fraction using apples.
We overlook that 1/2 of the apple is not equal. What do I mean?
One half of the apple could be bigger or smaller than another half and hence, it is not equal.
Although the item used (apple) is concrete but it is not Concrete Pictorial Approach. (CPA)

When the parts are equal, we can name them.

3/4 can be said as 3 out of 4 or 3 fourths or 3 quarters.
It should never be said as 3 upon 4.

3/4
3 - number; while 4 is the name (noun)

1/5 + 2/5 is the same as saying 1/cat + 2/cat

However, if the denominator is different, then we cannot add them up together because they are considered to be of different noun.

1/2       + 1/4            (it has different denominator - different names)
1/apple + 1/orange

2/4       + 1/4 = 3/4

Another example of fraction:

3/4         x 2 = 6/4
3 apples x 2 = 6 apples

Whole number and Fraction

7/5 = 1 + 2/5 = 1 2/5

1 and 2 fifths
"And" separates whole number with the fraction.

## Wednesday, 3 April 2013

### Day 2 Whole Numbers

10 Frame

Dividing a paper into 10 boxes and using kidney beans.

8 + 2 = 10

2 more to 8 is 10

We can use 6 beans, and thus it will be...

6 + 4 = 10

4 more than 6 is 10.

Children will learn alot about the numbers without explicit teaching.

I agree that we should start from concrete and then, move to abstract and this activity will definitely engaged children.

If we intend to teach children 8 + 6, we can use 10 frame.
8 on one of the 10 frame and 6 on the other 10 frame.

1. Count it all.
2. Making 10. (10) + (4)
3. Counting on from 8... adding another 6 more.
4. 5+5+4
5. Counting in twos, counting all.
6. Counting backwards from 20, because with 2 (10 frames) it adds up to 20. Therefore, it has to be less than 20 (6 less)
7. Double of it. (7+7)

As you can see, a simple addition but there are various methods to derive at the answer.

### Day 1

Today was the first day of the Module, Elementary Mathematics. I was indeed looking forward to class, hoping to learn mathematical concepts that I could use and teach children.

I have learnt that there was more than 1 way to solve a problem and in teaching, we begin with teaching children by modeling first, followed by scaffolding children's learning either through prompting or questioning. Next, we provide and finally the last stage of teaching is explaining to children.

Mathematics is not only about numbers but also the language we use.

I learn terms which I would love to share with all.

Ordinal numbers = position (Time & Space)

Time = I am 3rd in the race.
Space = I am sitting at the 4th row.

Cardinal = To tell the amount, quantity (Counting)

Nominal = Names (eg. bus no, block no)

Measurement = Units (eg. 3 litres)